Generalidades del ambiente de cabina de la Estación Espacial Internacional como análogo para misiones de tipo exploración: una visión desde la medicina aeroespacial

Palabras clave: Astronautas, estación espacial internacional, exposición ocupacional, fisiología espacial, medicina aeroespacial, vuelo espacial

Resumen

La salud y la seguridad de los astronautas en misiones de exploración espacial dependen del ambiente donde habitan, y la supervivencia en ambientes extremos requiere sistemas robustos que provean protección y les ofrezcan una atmósfera que les permita tener un desempeño normal en un entorno hostil. Es importante, entonces, conocer la cercana relación de los sistemas de soporte de vida, y el impacto en el bienestar de aquellos que trabajan en un espacio confinado con mínima utilización de recursos y energía.

El objetivo de esta revisión es describir los sistemas de control ambiental y de soporte de vida de la Estación Espacial Internacional, y relatar el impacto en la salud y el rendimiento psicofísico de los astronautas si estos no funcionan normalmente. Se hacen búsquedas en las bases de datos Scopus, Ovid, arXiv.org, SAGE, BioMed, ClincalKey, ProQuest, EBSCP, SpringerLink, Web of Science, Google Scholar y Pubmed, que integren el sistema de control ambiental y soporte de vida con los fenómenos fisiopatológicos en caso de emergencia. Se recopilan 649 referencias con las estrategias de búsqueda y se restan aquellas repetidas (445) y cuyo texto completo no se consiguió (133), con un total de 71 referencias para análisis. Se discuten las características habitacionales de la Estación Espacial Internacional en términos de calidad y cantidad de aire disponible, la composición de los gases, la producción de oxígeno y nitrógeno, el barrido del dióxido de carbono y sus efectos en el astronauta bajo condiciones de microgravedad. Además, se exploran efectos toxicológicos, del ambiente microbiológico, acústica y vigilancia de la exposición a radiación electromagnética. Las futuras misiones de tipo exploración espacial necesitarán sistemas de control ambiental robustos con bajo riesgo de fallo y probable uso de recursos in situ.

Biografía del autor/a

Diego Leonel Malpica Hincapie, Escuela de Postgrados de la FAC,  Colombia.
Especialista en Medicina Aeroespacial Docente e Investigador Escuela de Postgrados de la FAC Colombia. Rol del investigador: teórico y escritura Grupo de Investigación Ciencia y Poder Aéreo - CIPAER.

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Cómo citar
Malpica Hincapie, D. L. (2022). Generalidades del ambiente de cabina de la Estación Espacial Internacional como análogo para misiones de tipo exploración: una visión desde la medicina aeroespacial: . Ciencia Y Poder Aéreo, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.18667/cienciaypoderaereo.753

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Publicado
2022-11-03
Sección
Desarrollo Espacial - Ad Astra