Desempeño psicofísico en un vuelo espacial corto. Revisión narrativa de la literatura

Palabras clave: vuelo espacial, astronautas, fisiología, medicina aeroespacial, Colombia

Resumen

Desarrollar actividades en el espacio presenta retos psicofisiológicos que dificultan el desempeño humano, por lo que su entendimiento es fundamental para la planeación de misiones suborbitales, orbitales y de exploración. El ambiente de microgravedad, sumado a la exposición a las condiciones habitacionales en naves espaciales, exige una integración holística de los campos del conocimiento que estudian el rendimiento humano para llevar a cabo diversas actividades de investigación en ciencias espaciales para beneficio de las personas en la Tierra, además de tareas de mantenimiento de equipos, navegación y supervivencia, pero sobre todo para el diseño de programas que conserven la salud y preparen a los astronautas para la reentrada a la atmósfera, con el fin de disminuir la morbilidad y facilitar la aclimatación a la superficie terrestre. Se realiza, por tanto, una revisión sistemática de la literatura publicada en el periodo 1969-2020 mediante la búsqueda en bases de datos como ProQuest, EBSCO, Ovid, arXiv.org, SAGE, BioMed, ClincalKey, Scielo, ScienceDirect, Scopus, SpringerLink, Web of Science, Wiley, PubMed y Google Scholar, y se escogen los artículos que describan los cambios fisiológicos más relevantes en una secuencia de lanzamiento, vuelo orbital y reentrada en los sistemas nervioso central, cardiovascular, respiratorio, musculoesquelético y hematológico, inducidos por la microgravedad y la dinámica de una operación espacial corta.

Biografía del autor/a

Nindre Pico Quintero, Fuerza Aérea Colombiana, Colombia.

Psicóloga, magíster en Trastornos Cognitivos y del Aprendizaje Dirección de Medicina Aeroespacial. Fuerza Aérea Colombiana Colombia. Rol del investigador: teórico y escritura Grupo de investigación: Ciencia y Poder Aéreo CIPAER.

Diego Leonel Malpica Hincapie, Escuela de Posgrados Fuerza Aérea Colombiana, Colombia.

Especialista en Medicina Aeroespacial Docente de Fisiología de Vuelo. Escuela de Posgrados Fuerza Aérea Colombiana Colombia. Rol del investigador: teórico y escritura Grupo de investigación: Ciencia y Poder Aéreo CIPAER.

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Cómo citar
Pico Quintero, N., & Malpica Hincapie, D. L. (2022). Desempeño psicofísico en un vuelo espacial corto. Revisión narrativa de la literatura. Ciencia Y Poder Aéreo, 17(2). https://doi.org/10.18667/cienciaypoderaereo.752

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Publicado
2022-07-12
Sección
Seguridad Operacional y Logística Aeronáutica